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Chapter 1 - Thorax Grant's Atlas of Anatomy, 12th Edition Nursing

1.3 Superficial dissection, female pectoral region

  • On the specimen’s right side, the skin is removed; on the left side, the breast is sagittally sectioned.
  • The breast extends from the 2nd to the 6th ribs. The axillary process (tail) of the breast consists of glandular tissue projecting toward the axilla.
  • The region of loose connective tissue between the pectoral fascia and the deep surface of the breast, the retromammary bursa, permits the breast to move on the deep fascia.
  • Interference with the lymphatic drainage by cancer may cause lymphedema (edema, excess fluid in the subcutaneous tissue), which in turn may result in deviation of the nipple and a leathery, thickened appearance of the breast skin. Prominent (puffy) skin between dimpled pores may develop, which gives the skin an orange-peel appearance (peau d’orange sign). Larger dimples may form if pulled by cancerous invasion of the suspensory ligaments of the breast.

Categories
Chapter 1 - Thorax Grant's Atlas of Anatomy, 12th Edition Nursing

1.2 Superficial dissection, male pectoral region

  • The platysma muscle, which descends to the 2nd or 3rd rib, is cut short on the right side of the specimen; together with the supraclavicular nerves, it is reflected on the left side.
  • The thin pectoral fascia covers the pectoralis major.
  • The clavicle lies deep to the subcutaneous tissue and the platysma muscle.
  • The cephalic vein passes deeply in the clavipectoral (deltopectoral) triangle to join the axillary vein.
  • Supraclavicular (C3 and C4) and upper thoracic nerves (T2 to T6) supply cutaneous innervation to the pectoral region.
  • The clavipectoral (deltopectoral) triangle, bounded by the clavicle superiorly, the deltoid muscle laterally, and the clavicular head of the pectoralis major muscle medially, underlies a surface depression called the infraclavicular fossa.