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Introduction to Nursing Pharmacology Nursing Pharmacology

Drug Therapy in the 21st Century

Drug Therapy in the 21st Century

Changes in Health Care in the 21st Century

  • Access to medical and pharmacologic information is available from many sources
  • Consumers are taking steps to demand specific treatments and considerations
  • Alternative therapies are being offered and advertised
  • Financial pressures are leading to early discharge
  • Patient teaching and home care provisions are vital

Federal Guidelines—Drug Advertising

  • When the advertisement states the indication, it must also include:
    • Contraindications
    • Adverse effects
    • Precautions

Internet Sources for Drug Information

  • Pharmaceutical company information sites
  • Chat rooms with other people who are taking the drug
  • Online pharmacies
  • Lists of government regulations
  • Research reports about the drug and its effectiveness

Internet Site Evaluation

  • Navigation
    • Is the site easy to access and navigate or confusing?
  • Contributor
    • Who prepared the site and what are his qualifications? Is it reviewed, or is it purely commercial?
  • Dates
    • Is the site updated frequently?
  • Accuracy/reliability
    • Is the information supported by other sites, accurate, and in agreement with other sources you have reviewed? Are other links listed?

Problems Associated With OTC Medications

  • Can mask the signs and symptoms of disease
  • Can interact with prescription drugs
  • Can be taken in greater than the recommended dose, leading to toxicity

Over-the-Counter Drugs

  • Drugs that were “grandfathered” in
  • Former prescription drugs that have been tested and found to be safe for the general public if used as directed

Alternative Therapy Drawbacks

  • The active ingredient has not been tested by the FDA
  • Incidental ingredients are unknown
  • Patients do not always mention these therapies to their health care providers
  • Drug–alternative therapy interactions may occur

Controls for Alternative Therapy

  • Herbal medications and alternative therapies are not controlled or tested by the FDA
  • Advertisement for these drugs is not restricted because they are considered dietary supplements
  • No regulation by any industry

Off-Label Medications

  • Definition
    • The use of a drug for an indication that is not approved by the FDA
  • Occurrence
    • Commonly takes place in groups of patients for whom there is little premarketing testing
    • Used with pediatric and geriatric populations

Health Care in Crisis

  • Skyrocketing cost of medical care and drugs
  • Huge research and equipment requirements to meet consumer demands
  • Rising cost of health insurance
  • Earlier discharge from hospitals

Measures to Protect the Public From Bioterrorism

  • Emergency preparedness at all levels of the government

Treatments for Exposure to Biological/Chemical Weapons

Recommended Treatments for Biological/Chemical Weapons Exposure
Recommended Treatments for Biological/Chemical Weapons Exposure
Recommended Treatments for Biological/Chemical Weapons Exposure
Recommended Treatments for Biological/Chemical Weapons Exposure

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