Tag Archives: clinical manifestations
Cushing’s Syndrome

Cushing’s Syndrome

Cushing’s syndrome results from excessive adrenocortical activity. It may result from excessive administration of corticosteroids or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or from hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex. It may be caused by several mechanism, including a tumor in the pituitary gland or less commonly an ectopic malignancy that produces ACTH. Regardless of the  cause, the negative […]

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Addison’s Disease (Primary Adrenocortical Insufficiency)

Addison’s Disease (Primary Adrenocortical Insufficiency)

Addison’s disease is caused by a deficiency of cortical hormone. It results when the adrenal cortex function is inadequate to meet the patient’s need for cortical hormones. Autoimmune or idiopathic atrophy of the adrenal glands is responsible for 80% to 90% of cases. Other causes include surgical removal of both adrenal glands or infection (tuberculosis […]

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Anemia

Anemia

Anemia is a condition of lower-than-normal red blood cell (RBC)  count and hemoglobin (Hgb) level. It is often not a specific disease state but a sign of an underlying disorder. Anemia results in a diminished amount of oxygen delivery to body tissues.  There are many different kinds of anemia, but all can be classified as […]

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Angina Pectoris

Angina Pectoris

Angina pectoris is a clinical syndrome characterized by paroxysms of pain or a feeling of pressure in the anterior chest. The cause is insufficient blood flow, resulting in an inadequate supply of oxygen to meet the myocardial demand.  angina is usually the result of atherosclerotic (a form of arteriosclerosis characterized by the deposition of atheromatous […]

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Constipation

Constipation

Constipation refers to an abnormal infrequency or irregularity of defecation, abnormal hardening of stools that makes their passage difficult and sometimes painful, decrease in stool volume, or prolonged retention of stool in the rectum. This types is referred to as colonic constipation. It can be caused by certain medications; rectal or anal disorders; obstruction; metabolic, […]

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Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV infection)

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV infection)

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is defined as the most severe form of a continuum of illnesses associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. HIV belongs to a group of viruses known as retroviruses. These viruses carry their genetic material in the form of ribonucleic acid (RNA) rather than deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Infection with HIV occurs […]

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