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Betty Neuman

Betty Neuman

Health Care System Model (1972,1974,1980, 1982,1989) Person/Client: Open system consisting of a basic structure or central core of survival factors surrounded by concentric rings that are bounded by lines of resistance , a normal line of defense, and a flexible line of defense. The total person is a composite of physiologic, psychologic, sociocultural, and developmental […]

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Florence Nightingale (1860)

Florence Nightingale (1860)

Nightingale’s Environmental Theory Florence Nightingale, the “mother of modern nursing,” considered nursing to be a religious calling to be fulfilled only by women. Her theory focused on the environment, although this term never appeared in her writings. She linked health with five environmental factors: (1) pure or fresh air (2) pure water (3) efficient drainage […]

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