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Vaccines and Sera

Vaccines and Sera

Vaccines and Sera Biologicals—Actions Stimulate the production of antibodies Provide preformed antibodies to facilitate an immune reaction React specifically with the toxins produced by an invading pathogen Types of Immunity Active immunity The body recognizes a foreign protein and begins producing antibodies to react with it Passive immunity Occurs when preformed antibodies are injected into […]

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Immune Modulators

Immune Modulators

Immune Modulators   Sites of Actions of Immune Modulators Immune modulators Modify the actions of the immune system Immune stimulants Energize the immune system when it needs help fighting a specific pathogen Immune suppressants Block the normal effects of the immune system in organ transplantation and autoimmune disorders Immune Stimulants Interferons Naturally released from human […]

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Antineoplastic Agents

Antineoplastic Agents

Antineoplastic Agents Neoplasm Cancer—Mechanisms of Growth Anaplasia Cancerous cells lose cellular differentiation and organization and are unable to function normally Autonomy Cancerous cells grow without the usual homeostatic restrictions that regulate cell growth and control This allows the cells to form a tumor Metastasis Cancer cells travel from the place of origin to develop new […]

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Anthelmintic Agents

Anthelmintic Agents

Anthelmintic Agents Two Types of Helminths Commonly Infecting Humans Nematodes or roundworms Pinworms, whipworms, threadworms, Ascaris, and hookworms Platyhelminthes or flatworms Cestodes (tapeworms) and flukes (schistosomes) Measures to Control Infection Keep nails short Keep hands clean Frequent handwashing Shower in the morning Change and launder undergarments, bed linens, and pajamas daily Disinfect toilet seat daily […]

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Antiprotozoal Agents

Antiprotozoal Agents

Antiprotozoal Agents Causes of Protozoal Infections Insect bites Malaria Trypanosomiasis Leishmaniasis Ingestion or contact with the causal organism Amebiasis Giardiasis Trichomoniasis Protozoal Parasites Identified as Causes of Malaria Plasmodium falciparum Considered the most dangerous type of protozoan Plasmodium vivax Milder form of the disease; seldom results in death Plasmodium malariae Endemic in tropical countries; mild […]

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Antifungal Agents

Antifungal Agents

Antifungal Agents What Is a Fungus? Fungus Composed of a rigid cell wall made up of chitin and various polysaccharides, and a cell membrane containing ergosterol Protective layers of the fungal cell make the organism resistant to antibiotics Patients Susceptible to Fungal Infections Patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex (ARC) Patients taking immunosuppressant drugs Patients […]

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Antiviral Agents

Antiviral Agents

Antiviral Agents Viruses That Respond to Antiviral Therapy Influenza A and some respiratory viruses Herpes viruses Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) Some viruses that cause warts and certain eye infections Antivirals Across the Lifespan Characteristics of Common Viruses Viral replication A virus cannot replicate on its own […]

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics

Antibiotics Antibiotics Antibiotics are defined as: Chemicals that inhibit specific bacteria Types of Antibiotics Bacteriostatic Substances that prevent the growth of bacteria Bactericidal Substances that kill bacteria directly Signs of Infection Fever Lethargy Slow-wave sleep induction Classic signs of inflammation (redness, swelling, heat, and pain) Goal of Antibiotic Therapy Decrease the population of the invading […]

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Anti-infective Agents

Anti-infective Agents

Anti-infective Agents Drug Therapy Across the Lifespan Development of Anti-infective Therapy 1920s Paul Ehrlich worked on developing a synthetic chemical effective against infection-causing cells only Scientists discovered penicillin in a mold sample 1935 The sulfonamides were introduced Mechanisms of Action Interfere with biosynthesis of the bacterial cell wall Prevent the cells of the invading organism […]

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Introduction to Cell Physiology

Introduction to Cell Physiology

Introduction to Cell Physiology Chemotherapeutic Agents Alter cellular function or disrupt cellular integrity, causing cell death Prevent cellular reproduction, eventually leading to cell death Chemotherapeutic Drugs Destroy organisms that invade the body Bacteria, viruses, parasites, protozoa, fungi Destroy abnormal cells within the body Neoplasms and cancers Parts of a Human Cell Nucleus Cell membrane Cytoplasm […]

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