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Antiparkinsonism Agents

Antiparkinsonism Agents

Antiparkinsonism Agents Parkinson’s Disease Progressive chronic neurologic disorder May develop in people of any age Usually affects those who are past middle age and entering their 60s No cure for the disease Therapy is aimed at management of signs and symptoms Progression of Parkinson’s Disease Lack of coordination Rhythmic tremors Rigidity/weakness Trouble maintaining position or […]

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Antiepileptic Agents

Antiepileptic Agents

Antiepileptic Agents Factors Affecting the Type of Seizure Location of the cells that initiate the electrical discharge Neural pathways that are stimulated by the initial volley of electrical impulses Classification of Seizures Generalized seizures Begin in one area of the brain and rapidly spread throughout both hemispheres of the brain Partial seizures or focal seizures […]

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Psychotherapeutic Agents

Psychotherapeutic Agents

Psychotherapeutic Agents Psychotherapeutic Agents Used to treat psychoses: perceptual and behavioral disorders Drugs do not cure psychoses: they help patients function in a more acceptable manner and carry on activities of daily living Used in both children and adults Mental Disorders and Their Classifications Schizophrenia Mania/bipolar disease Narcolepsy Attention-deficit disorder Schizophrenia Characteristics Hallucinations, paranoia, delusions, […]

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Antidepressant Agents

Antidepressant Agents

Antidepressant Agents Affective Disorders vs Depression Affective disorder A person’s mood goes far beyond the normal “ups and downs” Depression Severe and long-lasting feelings of sadness beyond the precipitating event Signs and Symptoms of Depression Low energy level Sleep disturbances Lack of appetite Limited libido Inability to perform activities of daily living Overwhelming feelings of […]

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Anxiolytic and Hypnotic Agents

Anxiolytic and Hypnotic Agents

Anxiolytic and Hypnotic Agents Types of Anxiolytic and Hypnotic Agents Anxiolytics Prevent feelings of tension or fear Sedatives Calm and make patients unaware of the environment Hypnotics Cause sleep Minor tranquilizers Produce a state of tranquility in anxious patients States Affected by Anxiolytic and Hypnotic Drugs Anxiety –Feeling of tension, nervousness, apprehension, or fear involving […]

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Vaccines and Sera

Vaccines and Sera

Vaccines and Sera Biologicals—Actions Stimulate the production of antibodies Provide preformed antibodies to facilitate an immune reaction React specifically with the toxins produced by an invading pathogen Types of Immunity Active immunity The body recognizes a foreign protein and begins producing antibodies to react with it Passive immunity Occurs when preformed antibodies are injected into […]

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Immune Modulators

Immune Modulators

Immune Modulators   Sites of Actions of Immune Modulators Immune modulators Modify the actions of the immune system Immune stimulants Energize the immune system when it needs help fighting a specific pathogen Immune suppressants Block the normal effects of the immune system in organ transplantation and autoimmune disorders Immune Stimulants Interferons Naturally released from human […]

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Anti-inflammatory Agents

Anti-inflammatory Agents

Anti-inflammatory Agents Inflammatory Response Protects the body from injury and pathogens Uses chemical mediators to produce the reaction that helps destroy pathogens and promote healing Anti-inflammatory Agents Block or alter the chemical reactions associated with the inflammatory response Types of Anti-inflammatory Agents Corticosteroids: used systemically to block the inflammatory and immune systems Antihistamines: block the […]

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Introduction to the Immune Response and Inflammation

Introduction to the Immune Response and Inflammation

Introduction to the Immune Response and Inflammation Body’s Defenses Barrier defenses Cellular defenses Inflammatory response Immune response Barrier Defenses Skin Protects the internal tissues and organs of the body Mucous membrane Lines the areas of the body that are exposed to external influences but do not have skin protection Gastric acid Secreted by the stomach […]

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Antineoplastic Agents

Antineoplastic Agents

Antineoplastic Agents Neoplasm Cancer—Mechanisms of Growth Anaplasia Cancerous cells lose cellular differentiation and organization and are unable to function normally Autonomy Cancerous cells grow without the usual homeostatic restrictions that regulate cell growth and control This allows the cells to form a tumor Metastasis Cancer cells travel from the place of origin to develop new […]

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