Archive | Theorists RSS feed for this section
Dorothea E. Orem

Dorothea E. Orem

Person/Client: A unity who can be viewed as functioning biologically, symbolically, and socially and who initiates¬† and performs self-care activities on own behalf in maintaining life, health and well-being; self-care activities deal with air, water, food elimination, activity and rest, solitude and social interaction, prevention of hazards to life and well-being, and promotion of human […]

Read more
Dorothy E. Johnson

Dorothy E. Johnson

Behavioral System Model (1959,1968,1974,1980) Person/Client: A behavioral system composed of seven subsystems: affiliative, achievement, dependence, aggressive, eliminative, ingestive, and sexual. Environment: Consists of all factors that are not part of the individual’s behavioral system but that influence the system and some of which can be manipulated by the nurse to achieve the health goal of […]

Read more
Betty Neuman

Betty Neuman

Health Care System Model (1972,1974,1980, 1982,1989) Person/Client: Open system consisting of a basic structure or central core of survival factors surrounded by concentric rings that are bounded by lines of resistance , a normal line of defense, and a flexible line of defense. The total person is a composite of physiologic, psychologic, sociocultural, and developmental […]

Read more
Imogene King

Imogene King

Goal Attainment Theory (1971,1981,1986,1987,1989) Person/Client: Three interacting systems; individuals (personal system), groups (interpersonal system), and society (social system); the personal system is a unified, complex, whole self who perceives, thinks, desires, imagines, decides, identifies goals, and selects means to achieve them. Environment: Adjustments to life and health are influenced by an individual;s interactions with environment. […]

Read more
Virginia Henderson (1955, 1966, 1969, 1978)

Virginia Henderson (1955, 1966, 1969, 1978)

Person/Client: A whole, complete, and independent being who has 14¬† fundamental needs to breathe, eat and drink, eliminate, move and maintain posture, sleep and rest, dress and undress, maintain body temperature, keep clean, avoid danger, communicate, worship, work, play and learn. Environment: The aggregate of the external conditions and influences affecting the life and development […]

Read more
Florence Nightingale (1860)

Florence Nightingale (1860)

Nightingale’s Environmental Theory Florence Nightingale, the “mother of modern nursing,” considered nursing to be a religious calling to be fulfilled only by women. Her theory focused on the environment, although this term never appeared in her writings. She linked health with five environmental factors: (1) pure or fresh air (2) pure water (3) efficient drainage […]

Read more
Martha E. Rogers (1970, 1980, 1983, 1986, 1989)

Martha E. Rogers (1970, 1980, 1983, 1986, 1989)

Rogers’s Science of Unitary Human Beings Martha Rogers first presented her theory of unitary human beings in 1970. She views the person as an irreducible whole, the whole being greater than the sum of its parts. Whole is differentiated from holistic, the latter often being used to mean only the sum of all parts. She […]

Read more
Sister Callista Roy

Sister Callista Roy

Roy’s Adaptation Model Sister Callista Roy’s adaptation model, originating in 1970, is widely used by nurse educators, researchers, and practitioners. Roy focuses on the individual as a biopsychosocial adaptive system. Both the individual and the environment are sources of stimuli that require modification to promote adaptation, an ongoing purposive response. Adaptive responses contribute to health, […]

Read more

Ping your blog