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Peplau’s Psychodynamic Nursing Theory

Peplau’s Psychodynamic Nursing Theory

Hildegard Peplau is one of the first theorists since Nightingale to present a theory for nursing. She introduced her interpersonal concepts in 1952 and based them on available theories at the time: psychoanalytic theory, principles of social learning, and concepts of human motivation and personality development. Psychodynamic nursing is defined as understanding one’s own behavior […]

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Dorothea E. Orem

Dorothea E. Orem

Person/Client: A unity who can be viewed as functioning biologically, symbolically, and socially and who initiates  and performs self-care activities on own behalf in maintaining life, health and well-being; self-care activities deal with air, water, food elimination, activity and rest, solitude and social interaction, prevention of hazards to life and well-being, and promotion of human […]

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Dorothy E. Johnson

Dorothy E. Johnson

Behavioral System Model (1959,1968,1974,1980) Person/Client: A behavioral system composed of seven subsystems: affiliative, achievement, dependence, aggressive, eliminative, ingestive, and sexual. Environment: Consists of all factors that are not part of the individual’s behavioral system but that influence the system and some of which can be manipulated by the nurse to achieve the health goal of […]

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Betty Neuman

Betty Neuman

Health Care System Model (1972,1974,1980, 1982,1989) Person/Client: Open system consisting of a basic structure or central core of survival factors surrounded by concentric rings that are bounded by lines of resistance , a normal line of defense, and a flexible line of defense. The total person is a composite of physiologic, psychologic, sociocultural, and developmental […]

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Imogene King

Imogene King

Goal Attainment Theory (1971,1981,1986,1987,1989) Person/Client: Three interacting systems; individuals (personal system), groups (interpersonal system), and society (social system); the personal system is a unified, complex, whole self who perceives, thinks, desires, imagines, decides, identifies goals, and selects means to achieve them. Environment: Adjustments to life and health are influenced by an individual;s interactions with environment. […]

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The Development of Nursing in America

The Development of Nursing in America

In North America, nursing and health services were slow to be established before the American Revolution (1775 – 1783). One notable organization was the Nurse Society of Philadelphia, which gave women minimal instruction in obstetrics to enable them to provide maternity nursing services in home settings. During the American Civil War, several nurses emerged who […]

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The Development of Modern Nursing

The Development of Modern Nursing

The intellectual revolution of the 18th and 19th centuries led to a scientific revolution. With the discovery and exploration of new continents, an economic revolution evolved, after which nations became more interdependent through trade. The Industrial Revolution displaced workers from cottage craftsmen to factory laborers. With these changes came stressors to health. New illnesses, transmitted […]

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The Role of Religion in the Development of Nursing

The Role of Religion in the Development of Nursing

Many of the world’s religions encourage benevolence, but it was the Christians value of “love thy neighbor as thyself” that had a significant impact on the development if Western nursing. The principle of caring was established with Christ’s parable of the Good Samaritan providing care for a tired and injured stranger. Converts to Christianity during […]

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Virginia Henderson (1955, 1966, 1969, 1978)

Virginia Henderson (1955, 1966, 1969, 1978)

Person/Client: A whole, complete, and independent being who has 14  fundamental needs to breathe, eat and drink, eliminate, move and maintain posture, sleep and rest, dress and undress, maintain body temperature, keep clean, avoid danger, communicate, worship, work, play and learn. Environment: The aggregate of the external conditions and influences affecting the life and development […]

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Florence Nightingale (1860)

Florence Nightingale (1860)

Nightingale’s Environmental Theory Florence Nightingale, the “mother of modern nursing,” considered nursing to be a religious calling to be fulfilled only by women. Her theory focused on the environment, although this term never appeared in her writings. She linked health with five environmental factors: (1) pure or fresh air (2) pure water (3) efficient drainage […]

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