Archive | November, 2011
New ways of working

New ways of working

Rapid changes have occurred within the NHS since the return of the Labour government to power in 1997. This commenced with The New NHS: Modern, Dependable (DOH 1997) and has  been consolidated in The NHS Plan (DOH 2000a). Health and social policy have provided the driver for change and health care professionals have been required […]

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Setting the scene: an introduction

Setting the scene: an introduction

These are exciting and challenging times for community nurses. Liberating the Talents (DOH 2002) provides a framework for the expansion ofclinical roles and calls for greater freedom to encourage creativity. This book has been designed to support staff who may be new to working in acommunity setting and is an essential guide to practice. We […]

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DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR DISEASE

DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR DISEASE

Disseminated intravascular coagulation, formerly termed as disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, is not a disease but a sign of an underlying condition. DIC may be triggered by sepsis, trauma, cancer, shock, abruptio placenta, toxins or allergic reactions. The severity of DIC is variable, but it is potentially life-threatening. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY  Normal homeostatic mechanism are altered in DIC so […]

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BUERGER’S DISEASE

BUERGER’S DISEASE

Buerger’s disease is characterized by recurring inflammation of the intermediate and small arteries and veins of the lower and (in rare case) upper extremities. It results in thrombus formation and occlusion of the vessels. It is differentiated from other vessel diseases by it microscopic appearance. In contrast to atherosclerosis, Buerger’s disease is believed to be […]

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Pulmonary Emphysema

Pulmonary Emphysema

Pulmonary emphysema is defined as a nonuniform pattern of abnormal, permanent distention of the air spaces  with destruction of the alveolar walls and eventually a reduced pulmonary capillary bed. It appears to be the end stage of a process that has progressed slowly for many years. Smoking is the major cause. In a few patients, […]

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Anemia, Megaloblastic (Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Deficiency)

Anemia, Megaloblastic (Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Deficiency)

The anemias caused by deficiencies of the vitamins B12 and folic acid show identical bone marrow and peripheral blood changes. Both vitamins are essential for DNA synthesis. Pathophysiology The two main vitamin deficiencies may coexist. In each case, hyperplasia of the bone marrow occurs, and the precursor erythroid and myeloid cells are large and bizarre […]

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