Vaccines and Sera

Vaccines and Sera

Biologicals—Actions

  • Stimulate the production of antibodies
  • Provide preformed antibodies to facilitate an immune reaction
  • React specifically with the toxins produced by an invading pathogen

Types of Immunity

  • Active immunity
    • The body recognizes a foreign protein and begins producing antibodies to react with it
  • Passive immunity
    • Occurs when preformed antibodies are injected into the system and react with a specific antigen

Immunization

  • Definition
    • The process of artificially stimulating active immunity
    • Exposes the body to weakened or less toxic proteins associated with specific disease-causing organisms
  • Goal
    • To cause an immune response without having the patient suffer the full course of a disease

Childhood Vaccinations

  • Diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus
  • Haemophilus B
  • Hepatitis B and hepatitis A
  • Chickenpox
  • Polio
  • Measles, mumps, and rubella

Vaccines—Indications

  • Stimulate active immunity in people who are at risk
  • The vaccine needed depends on the exposure the person will have to pathogens
  • Vaccines are thought to provide lifelong immunity

Vaccines—Contraindications

  • In the presence of immune deficiency
  • During pregnancy
  • Known allergies to any of the components of the vaccine
  • Patients who receive immune globulin or who have received blood or blood products within the last 3 months
  • Caution with history of febrile convulsions or cerebral injury, conditions in which high fever would be dangerous, and during acute infection

Vaccines–Adverse Effects

  • Fever
  • Rash
  • Malaise
  • Chills
  • Fretfulness
  • Drowsiness
  • Anorexia
  • Vomiting
  • Irritability
  • Pain, redness, and swelling at the injection site

Site of Action of Vaccines, Immune Sera, and Antitoxins

Site of Action of Vaccines, Immune Sera, and Antitoxins

Site of Action of Vaccines, Immune Sera, and Antitoxins

Immune Sera

  • Definition
    • Sera that contain antibodies to specific bacteria or viruses
  • Types
    • Antitoxin and antivenom
      • Immune sera have antibodies to specific toxins that might be released by invading pathogens, or to venom from spider or snake bites

Immune Sera and Antitoxins—Indications

  • Provide passive immunity to a specific antigen or disease
  • Used as prophylaxis against specific disease after exposure
  • May lessen the severity of a disease

Immune Sera and Antitoxins

  • History of severe reaction to any immune sera
  • Use with caution:
    • Pregnancy
    • Coagulation defects
    • Previous exposure to the immune sera
    • Rash
    • Nausea
    • Vomiting
    • Chills
    • Fever
  • Allergic reaction
    • Chest tightness, decreased blood pressure, and difficulty breathing
  • Local reaction
    • Swelling, tenderness, pain, and muscle stiffness at the injection site

Biological Weapons

Biological Weapons

Biological Weapons

Use of Biologicals Across the Lifespan

Use of Biologicals Across the Lifespan

Use of Biologicals Across the Lifespan

Adult Immunization Schedule

Adult Immunization Schedule

Adult Immunization Schedule

Childhood Immunization Schedule

Childhood Immunization Schedule

Childhood Immunization Schedule

Prototype Vaccine

Prototype Vaccine

Prototype Vaccine

Prototype Immune Sera

Prototype Immune Sera

Prototype Immune Sera

Nursing Considerations for Vaccines

  • Assessment (history and physical exam)
  • Nursing diagnosis
  • Implementation
  • Evaluation

Nursing Considerations for Immune Sera and Antitoxins

  • Assessment (history and physical exam)
  • Nursing diagnosis
  • Implementation
  • Evaluation
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