Antineoplastic Agents

Antineoplastic Agents

Neoplasm Cancer—Mechanisms of Growth

  • Anaplasia
    • Cancerous cells lose cellular differentiation and organization and are unable to function normally
  • Autonomy
    • Cancerous cells grow without the usual homeostatic restrictions that regulate cell growth and control
    • This allows the cells to form a tumor
  • Metastasis
    • Cancer cells travel from the place of origin to develop new tumors in other areas of the body
  • Angiogenesis
    • Abnormal cells release enzymes to generate blood vessels and supply oxygen and nutrients to the cells, generating growth
    • Cancerous cells rob the host cells of energy and nutrients and block normal lymph

The Body’s Immune System Response to Cancerous Cells

  • Can damage or destroy some neoplastic cells
  • T cells recognize the abnormal cells and destroy them
  • Antibodies form in response to parts of the abnormal cell protein
  • Interferons and tissue necrosis factor (TNF) play a role in the body’s attempt to eliminate the abnormal cells

Possible Causes of Cancer

  • Genetic predisposition
  • Viral infection
  • Constant irritation and cell turnover
  • Stress
  • Lifestyle factors
  • Environmental factors

Classifications of Tumors

  • Solid tumors
    • May originate in any body organ
    • Carcinomas (originate in epithelial cells)
    • Sarcomas (originate in the mesenchyma)
  • Hematologic malignancies
    • Leukemias and lymphomas that occur in the blood-forming organs

Mechanisms of Antineoplastic Drugs

  • Affect cell survival
  • Boost the immune system in its efforts to combat the abnormal cells

Goal of Cancer Treatment

  • To destroy cancer cells using the following methods:
    • Surgical removal
    • Stimulation of the immune system to destroy them
    • Radiation therapy to destroy them
    • Drug therapy to kill them during various phases of the cell cycle

Categories of Antineoplastic Agents

  • Alkylating agents
    • React chemically with portions of the RNA, DNA, or other cellular proteins
  • Antimetabolites
    • Have chemical structures similar to those of natural metabolites
  • Antineoplastic antibiotics
    • Not selective for bacterial cells only; toxic to human cells
  • Mitotic inhibitors
    • Drugs that kill cells as the process of mitosis begins
  • Hormones and hormone modulators
    • Used in cancers that are sensitive to estrogen stimulation
  • Cancer-cell–specific agents
    • Treat chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and CD117-positive unresectable or metastatic malignant GI stromal tumors (GIST)

Sites of Action of Non-Cell-Cycle–Specific Antineoplastic Agents

Sites of Actions of Non-Cell-Cycle-Specific Antineoplastic Agents

Sites of Actions of Non-Cell-Cycle-Specific Antineoplastic Agents

 

 

Sites of Action of Cell-Cycle–Specific Antineoplastic Agents

Sites of Action Cell-Cycle-Specific Antineoplastic Agents

Sites of Action Cell-Cycle-Specific Antineoplastic Agents

Alkylating Agents

  • Actions
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Contraindications
  • Adverse reactions
  • Drug-to-drug interactions

Antimetabolites

  • Actions
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Contraindications
  • Adverse reactions
  • Drug-to-drug interactions

Antineoplastic Antibiotics

  • Actions
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Contraindications
  • Adverse reactions
  • Drug-to-drug interactions

Mitotic Inhibitors

  • Actions
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Contraindications
  • Adverse reactions
  • Drug-to-drug interactions

Hormones and Hormone Modulators

  • Actions
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Contraindications
  • Adverse reactions
  • Drug-to-drug interactions

Prototype Alkylating Agent

Prototype Alkylating Agent

Prototype Alkylating Agent

 

 

Prototype Antimetabolite Agent

Prototype Antimetabolite Agent

Prototype Antimetabolite Agent

 

 

Prototype Antineoplastic Antibiotics

Prototype Antineoplastic Antiboitics

Prototype Antineoplastic Antiboitics

 

 

Prototype Mitotic Inhibitors

Prototype Mitotic Inhibitors

Prototype Mitotic Inhibitors

 

Prototype Hormones and Hormone Modulators

Prototype Hormones and Hormone Modulators

Prototype Hormones and Hormone Modulators

 

 

Use of Antineoplastic Across the Lifespan

Use of Antineoplastic Across the Lifespan

Use of Antineoplastic Across the Lifespan

 

 

Nursing Considerations for Alkylating Agents

  • Assessment (history and physical exam)
  • Nursing diagnosis
  • Implementation
  • Evaluation

Nursing Considerations for Antimetabolites

  • Assessment (history and physical exam)
  • Nursing diagnosis
  • Implementation
  • Evaluation

Nursing Considerations for Antineoplastic Antibiotics

  • Assessment (history and physical exam)
  • Nursing diagnosis
  • Implementation
  • Evaluation

Nursing Considerations for Mitotic Inhibitors

  • Assessment (history and physical exam)
  • Nursing diagnosis
  • Implementation
  • Evaluation

Nursing Considerations for Hormones and Hormone Modulators

  • Assessment (history and physical exam)
  • Nursing diagnosis
  • Implementation
  • Evaluation
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