Martha E. Rogers (1970, 1980, 1983, 1986, 1989)
Rogers’s Science of Unitary Human Beings
Martha Rogers first presented her theory of unitary human beings in 1970. She views the person as an irreducible whole, the whole being greater than the sum of its parts. Whole is differentiated from holistic, the latter often being used to mean only the sum of all parts. She states that humans are dynamic energy fields in continuous exchange with environmental fields, both of which are infinite. Both human and environmental fields are characterized by pattern, a universe of open systems, and four-dimensionality. According to Rogers, unitary man
- Is an irreducible, four-dimensional energy field, identified by pattern.
- Manifests characteristics different from the sum of the parts.
- Interacts continuously and creatively with the environment.
- Behaves as a totality.
- As a sentient being, participates creatively in change.
The key concepts Rogers uses to describe the individual and the environment are:
- Energy fields – are the fundamental level of humans and the environment(all that is outside a given human field). It is dynamic, constantly exchanging energy from one to the other.
- Openness – holds that the energy fields of humans and the environment are open systems, that is infinite, integral with one another, and in continuous process.
- Pattern - refers to the unique identifying behaviors, qualities, and characteristics of the energy fields that change continuously and innovatively.
- Four-dimensionality – is a nonlinear domain without temporal or spiritual attributes. All reality is considered to be four-dimensional.
Three Principles of Homeodynamics that offers a way of perceiving how unitary human beings develop:
1. Integrality – the human and environmental fields interact mutually and simultaneously.
2. Resonancy – means the wave pattern in the fields change continuously and from lower-to higher-frequency patterns.
3. Helicy – postulates that the field changes are innovative, probabilistic, and characterized by increasing diversity of field patterns and repeating rhythmicities.
Kozier, Barbara et.al Fundamentals of Nursing 5th edition
Addison - Wesley Publishing Company, Inc. p.50